Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego Leśny Zakład Doświadczalny SGGW w Rogowie

Botanical collection

Dendrological collection

Experimental forestry plots

Alpinarium

Herbaceous plant collection

Tropical plant collection

 

Kolcosił drzewiasty

Aralia japońska

Aralia kolczasta

Eleutherococcus leucorrhizus

Eleuterokok kolczasty

Eleuterokok

Ostrokrzew kolczasty

Bluszcz pospolity

Family Araliaceae

The Araliaceae family encompasses 50 genera, within which there are 1,412 species of herbaceous and woody plants, these being climbers, subshrubs, shrubs and trees. Their leaves are either simple or compound. In some species of aralia, the featherlike, pinnate compound leaves can reach a length of 1.5 metres! The tiny flowers, which are, more often than not, white, are clustered in basketlike, spherical panicles or racemes and it gives a tiny, shining, stone-bearing fruit. They are most often cultivated for their leaf display.

The majority of plants in this family occur in the tropical zones of both hemispheres, (in Indonesia, Malaysia and America) and are more rarely encountered in a temperate climate. Some species are cultivated as house plants.

Representatives of the following genera of this family can be seen at the Rogów:
Aralia
Eleutherococcus (formerly Acanthopanax)
Hedera
Kalopanax
Oplopanax

Genus Aralia

5 species grow in the Rogów Arboretum:
Aralia chinensis
Native to China, from Manchuria to the provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan, this slow-growing tree species differs from other aralia in its late flowering period, which occurs in September, or even in October. The shoots are very slightly spiny. At times, it can suffer from frost damage.
Aralia elata
This is the most popular species of aralia for cultivation. Typically, it occurs in China. In Poland, the species is fully frost-resistant. It can grow to a height of 7 metres and, being self-seeding, spreads very profusely.
Aralia elata var. glabrescens (=var. mandshurica)
This variety is very similar to the typical species, differing only in its glabrous leaves beneath, and in longer stipules. It ranges across China, Korea, Eastern Russia and Japan.
Aralia nudicaulis
Occurring in Canada to the USA, from Newfoundland to Manitoba, the Carolinas and Missouri, it is a suffrutex, with thornless, woody shoots that trail to the ground. In Poland, it is fully frost-resistant.
Aralia spinosa
Found in the north-eastern and southern USA, from New York to Florida and Texas, this is a shrub which grows to a height of barely 4 metres, with a less intensive growth rate than that of the Asian species.
Aralia stipulata
Rarely encountered in collections, this species grows into a smallish tree of no more than a few metres in height. It is distinguished by the distinct stipules at the base of its leaf stalks. The shoots are very slightly thorny and its yellow-tinted flowers bloom in August.
Aralia cordata
Growing on Sakhalin, as well as in Japan, Taiwan and China, this is a perennial species.

Genus Eleutherococcus

There are 13 species and two varieties growing in the Rogów Arboretum:
Eleutherococcus divaricatus
a species occuring from Japan to Central and Eastern China;
Eleutherococcus divaricatus var. chiisanensis
native to the Korean Peninsula, as well as to Japan and China;
Eleutherococcus giraldii
occurs in China;
Eleutherococcus henryi
occurs in Southern China;
Eleutherococcus lasiogyne
native to Tibet and China's Sichuan Province;
Eleutherococcus leucorrhizus
occurs in China;
Eleutherococcus nodiflorus
occurs in China and North Vietnam;
Eleutherococcus senticosus
occurs in the Far East and in China, Korea and Japan;
Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus
occurs in the Far East and in China, Korea and Japan;
Eleutherococcus setchuenensis
occurs in China;
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus
occurs in China's Anhui Province;
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus 'Variegatus'
occurs in the Far East and in China, Korea and Japan;
Eleutherococcus simonii
occurs in Central China, in the Hubei Province;
Eleutherococcus stenophyllus
occurs in China, in the Ningxia and Shaanxi Provinces;
Eleutherococcus wardii
occurs in Tibet and in China, in the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces.

Genus Hedera

1 species grows in the Rogów Arboretum, with 18 varieties of that species represented:
Hedera helix
grows in Europe, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean Basin and from the Caucasus to Asia Minor. An evergreenclimber, growing to a height of 30 metres, its fragrant, green-hued flower heads open in the autumn and, in the spring of the following year, ripen into a poisonous, black fruit.

Genus Kalopanax

1 species grows in the Rogów Arboretum, with one variety:
Kalopanax septemlobus
occurring in China, Eastern Siberia, Korea and Japan. The oldest and largest example of this species in Poland can be seen in our garden. At 78 years old, measured at a height of 1m from the ground, it had attained a circumference of 98cm and it is 21 m tall.
Kalopanax septemlobus var. maximowiczii
grows in China and Japan. The largest specimen in the Arboretum is 76 years old, 37cm diameter at breast height and 14m tall.

Genus Oplopanax

1 species grows in the Rogów Arboretum:
Oplopanax horridus
occurs in North America, from Alaska to California. This shrub, growing to a height and width of 2m and flowering and fruiting annually. It is susceptible to late frosts and therefore it is the best indicator of late frosts in the Arboretum!

The plants of the aralia family are prized not only for their ornamental qualities, but also for their medicinal properties. The most popular species is ginseng. Its Latin name is Panax ginseng, which means 'panacea', in other words, a remedy for all ills. In Chinese, 'gin - seng' means 'root - human' and the root of this plant does, indeed, have a humanlike shape to it.
The root of the ginseng contains around 200 substances which are good for us. The most significant are ginsenosides, thanks to which, energy levels rise, as does the system's capacity for both physical and mental exertion. Ginsenosides also stimulates the immune system, leading to an increased resistance to bacterial and viral infections and a faster recovery from illness. Ginseng has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the internal secreting organs, it stimulates the heart, is anti-thrombotic, regulates blood sugar levels and reduces cholesterol levels.
Ginseng is recommended for older people, among others. Taken regularly, it has an impact on their physical and mental fitness, slowing down the body's ageing process, alleviating menopausal and andropausal symptoms and thus enabling people to maintain an active lifestyle into their advanced years.
Ginseng-root extract is also used in cosmetics as a preparation for rejuvenating the skin and in treatments to ward off baldness and hair loss.
Other plants of this family have properties similar to those of ginseng.
Taking extract of Aralia, Eleutherococcus and Oplopanax root increases the system's general functioning and capacity for adaptation, improving its resistance to increased physical and mental effort and reducing susceptibility to stress. In addition, it acts on the smooth muscles as a relaxant, tones up the cardiovascular system and stabilises blood pressure.
Alcohol extracts and extracts in tablet form, are helpful during a state of mild depression, low blood pressure and reduced debilitation and decreased system immunity.
Furthermore, the extract of Aralia roots is used in manufacturing Aralman, a soft drink which acts rather like Coca-Cola.

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